Log In | Become a Member | Contact Us

Market Intelligence for Printing and Publishing

Connect on Twitter | Facebook | LinkedIn

Featured:   COVID-19 Coverage   Printing Outlook 2020   WhatTheyThink Magazine     Production Inkjet     Installations and Placements

Commentary & Analysis

When Color Memory Fails, Do Brand Standards Matter?

We are in a color-obsessed industry. Brand colors, in particular, are critical. When it comes to specific shades of color, however, studies show that consumers’ color memories are really poor. Considering this, along with the inability to maintain brand color standards in a digital world, where does the value in maintaining brand standards really lie?

By Heidi Tolliver-Walker
Published: July 18, 2018

We are in a color-obsessed industry. Brand colors, in particular, are critical. Consumers have iconic brand colors seared into their memories. That’s why they can pick out the bottle of Tide in the grocery store from 30 feet away. In fact, some colors like Tide Orange, Coca-Cola Red, and UPS Brown are so iconic that if there were a “color line-up” of various shades of orange, red, and brown, we would be able to correctly pick the brand colors out of the line-up every time, right? Think again.

The reality is, consumers have pretty faulty color memory. This innate human frailty was the premise of a recent blog post by Eddy Hagen on Insights4PrintCEO.com. The post was titled “You Can’t Correctly Remember an Iconic Color, Not Even Coca-Cola Red.” It was inspired by a study conducted by Johns Hopkins University, which found that people’s color memories are actually quite poor. Based on the results of this study, Hagen devised his own test. (Click here to take it.) He created a slide show of six color patches in varying shades of red, all with the Coca-Cola logo superimposed. He then asked people to choose the correct Coca-Cola Red.

All of the reds were well-known brand colors, including Tesla, Adobe, and of course, Coca-Cola. Despite the fact that Coca-Cola Red is embedded in the fabric of American culture, the majority of people got it wrong. I took the test myself, and so did I. Granted, I wasn’t viewing the test on a calibrated monitor, but I’m not sure it would have made a difference.

At the outset, I thought, “Of course I can accurately identify Coke’s brand color. Can’t everyone?” But when faced with all six color options, suddenly I was second-guessing myself. The one I selected was very close, but it was still a brand color that belonged to someone else. My husband, who has an extraordinary eye for color, also took the test. He got it wrong, too. (We each picked different colors.)

Hagen’s conclusions?

If my feeling is right, if other studies that I’ve seen are right, our color memory isn’t that good at exactly remembering a brand color. Yes, we will remember that it’s a vibrant red. But which vibrant red? That’s another story. I guess you could easily swap Coca-Cola red with Adobe red without anyone noticing or anyone bothering….Except for the brand owner, maybe.

As to be expected, Hagen’s column got a lot of comments from people concerned about any hint that color standards should be loosened based how inaccurate people’s color memories are. But I’m not sure that, when it comes to the results of these studies, we can fault color memory alone. How do most of us consume information? Digitally, and once color goes into the digital realm, brands lose control. To prove it to myself, I Googled images for Coca-Cola Red, and as expected, the results showed images in which the red looked quite different from one image to the other. My red is in there. So is my husband’s, and they aren’t in the same image.

How can we be faulted for remembering brand color incorrectly when non-brand-standard color is all around us? Which Coca-Cola Red am I supposed to be remembering? The one on Coca-Cola’s print materials, where color can be controlled, or the ones I see most often in the world around me?

Despite the challenge, this doesn't mean that brand standards should be loosened. It is because brand standards are held to the greatest consistency possible that we come to associate specific colors with specific brands.

Furthermore, one of the aspects of Hagen’s test was running the colors in a slide show, not side by side, because the human brain does better when comparing colors to one another than trying to remember them in isolation. Yet, on a retail shelf, how do we see color? In comparison to others. When you look down the retail aisle, you don’t see a whole variety of brand colors in shades of red. You see Pepsi Blue, Mountain Dew Green, Off-Brand Purple Grape, and...yes, Coke Red. It’s why competitive brands don’t pick colors close to one another.

Still, standardizing and trying to control brand color can be time-consuming and costly. So...

  • if consumers have really poor color memories, and
  • if brand standards cannot be controlled online where most people consume information, and
  • if consumers identify brands on retail shelves where few brand colors are close enough to make perfect color control a true differentiator from one product to another,

...what is the true value of maintaining a brand’s color standards? Or is the ability to perfectly hit brand color every time across all production devices just a competitive differentiator among printers?

I’d love your opinion! 

Heidi Tolliver-Walker Heidi is an industry analyst specializing in digital, one-to-one, personalized URL, and Web-to-print applications. Her Marketer’s Primer Series, availalbe through Digital Printing Reports, includes “Digital Printing: Transforming Business and Marketing Models,” 1:1 (Personalized) Printing: Boosting Profits Through Relevance,” “Personalized URLs: Beyond the Hype,” and “Web-to-Print: Transforming Document Management and Marketing.”



By Eddy Hagen on Jul 18, 2018

Thanks for picking up my article and starting the discussion Heidi!

When talking about side-by-side comparisons of colors, you might want to check that other article I published recently, about a test with printed packages (https://www.insights4print.ceo/2018/05/groundbreaking-color-study/). In this test 1/3 of the print professionals claimed to see differences between identical flat copies… And even 2 out of 3 of all participants claimed to see a differences between identical folded packages. Over 100 people took part in this test, the samples were viewed in a viewing booth.

In this test, people were asked if they saw a difference, which makes them look for a difference. In psychology this is called 'framing'. And that is what is also the starting point of a press check: "Dear customer, do you notice a difference between the proof and the print?" In real life, in the supermarket, however, the situation is different. Nobody will ask you about if the brand colors are correct, so you won't look for differences. The color is just one of the aspects that will enable you to identify the brand (next to the artwork, the shape of the package, e.g.). And you just want to find our favorite brand as quick as possible, you won't spend as much time searching and selecting a package as you would when doing a press check. So the package has to fall within that broad color range from our memory, as Johns Hopkings found, to be labelled as that iconic color.

BTW: I'm not advocating to get rid of all printing standards. The industry still needs to deliver good quality. But we don't need to be extremists about small color deviations. And: color deviations are only one part of print quality. There are other aspects that can be much worse for the brand image than a color deviation of a few delta E.


By Eddy Hagen on Mar 23, 2019

A small update: I recently did a survey with over 100 people outside the printing industry to check their shopping behavior and brand loyalty. One of the aspects I wanted to check is if they would (not) buy damaged packages and packages that 'look different', if they would switch brands in these cases. And guess what: they don't mind. Promotions from other brands and empty shelves are significantly higher risks for brand loyalty.
I also included the 'Coca-Cola Red' memory test. 27% got it right (which is more than in the original test: 18%), 18% said they didn't have a clue (compared to 0,3% in the original test). And even more interesting: I also asked which one of those colors they would not trust, which one they would leave on the shelves. 60% said they were all acceptable (even the 9,2 dE00!). And below 5 dE00 the results are random. Even 5% picked the right color as 'not trustworthy'...
Here is the complete study: https://www.insights4print.ceo/2019/03/new-survey-the-influence-of-color-deviations-damaged-packages-on-shopping-behavior-and-brand-loyalty/


Post a Comment

To post a comment Log In or Become a Member, doing so is simple and free


Become a Member

Join the thousands of printing executives who are already part of the WhatTheyThink Community.

Copyright © 2020 WhatTheyThink. All Rights Reserved